The New York Times Guide to Essential Knowledge

A Desk Reference for the Curious Mind

The Staff of The New York Times

St. Martin's Press

The New York Times Guide to Essential Knowledge
For The New York Times:
Administration: Michael Greenspon, General Manager, News Services; Nancy Lee, Vice President and Executive Editor, News Services and Syndicate; Alex Ward, Editorial Director, Book Development; Mitchel Levitas, Executive Associate.
Featured Writers: Natalie Angier, Pam Belluck, Sandra Blakeslee, Graham Bowley, Jane E. Brody, Elisabeth Bumiller, Kenneth Chang, Celia W. Dugger, Justin Gillis, Michiko Kakutani, Michael Kimmelman, Anna Kisselgoff, Gina Kolata, Sonia Kolesnikov-Jessop, Alastair Macauley, Charles McGrath, Anahad O'Connor, Nicolai Ouroussoff, Dennis Overbye, Jon Pareles, Thom Shanker, Will Shortz, Brian Stelter, Anthony Tommasini, Hal Varian, Nicholas Wade, John Noble Wilford.
This book was assembled and edited by the staff of Elizabeth Publishing and by a group of academic and professional writers.
Elizabeth Publishing:
General Editor: John W. Wright
Executive Editors: Matt Fisher, Lisette Cheresson
Designer: Virginia Norey
Senior Writers and Editors:
Herb Addison (Architecture, Business, Economics); Ariana Brookes (Literature, Music, Reference Library); Ellen Chodosh (Medicine, Music, Dance); Philip Francis (Psychology, Biographies, Sports); Terry Golway (History); Colleen Hamilton, Ph.D. (Literature); C. Alan Joyce; Deborah Kaple, Ph.D. (Government); John Major, Ph.D. (Art, Religion, World History, Languages); David Major, Ph.D. (Anthropology, Chemistry, Economics, Environment, Geography, Religion); Michael Miller (Botany, Computers, Music, Zoology); Robert Murphy (Literature, Biographies); Lincoln Paine (Geography, History, Biographies); Lisa Renaud (Literature); Jenny Tesar (Biochemistry, Biology, Medicine, Nutrition).
Principal Contributors:
Christopher Anderson, Ph.D., Indiana University (Radio and Television); Bryan Bunch (Math, Physics); Richard Carlin (Popular Music, Dance); T. Susan Chang (Food); Michael Coffey (Baseball); Susan Doll (Film); Abigail Elbow (Photography); Alice Finer (Mythology, Biographies); Pete Fornatale (Sports); Kurt Hettler (Sports, Wine); Michael Kaufman, Ph.D., San Jose State University (Astronomy); Christine Leahy (Art, Biographies); Edward O'Donnell, Ph.D., Holy Cross College (American History); John Rosenthal (Business, Finance); Robert Sharp (Major Wars); Michael Signer, Ph.D., J.D. (Law); David Sobel (Geology); Murray Sperber, Ph.D., Indiana University (College Sports); Robert L. Spring (Literature); Karen Tolchin, Ph.D., Florida Gulf Coast University (American Literature); Harvey Wiener, Ph.D., formerly of City University of New York and Adelphi University (Writer's Guide); Thomas Willkens (Philosophy).
Contributing Editors: Jeff Deeney, Andrea Galyean, Anna Kelman, Ben Keene, James McCaffery, Fred Riccardi, George L. Seibel IV, Laura Stickney, Randy Te Velde, Joseph Wiener, Saul Wiener.
Senior Copy Editors: Jerold Kappes, Susan Gamer.
THE NEW YORK TIMES GUIDE TO ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE. Copyright © 2011 by The New York Times Company. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles or reviews. For information, address St. Martin's Press, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10010.