How did a nation founded as a homeland for South Asian Muslims, most of whom follow a tolerant nonthreatening form of Islam, become a haven for Al Qaeda and a rogue’s gallery of domestic jihadist and sectarian groups?
In this groundbreaking history of Pakistan’s involvement with radical Islam, John R. Schmidt, the senior U.S political analyst in Pakistan in the years before 9/11, places the blame squarely on the rulers of the country, who thought they could use Islamic radicals to advance their foreign policy goals without having to pay a steep price. This strategy worked well at first--in Afghanistan during the anti-Soviet jihad, in Kashmir in support of a local uprising against Indian rule, and again in Afghanistan in backing the Taliban in the Afghan civil war. But the government’s plans would begin to unravel in the wake of 9/11, when the rulers’ support for the U.S. war on terror caused many of their jihadist allies to turn against them. Today the army generals and feudal politicians who run Pakistan are by turns fearful of the consequences of going after these groups and hopeful that they can still be used to advance the state’s interests.
The Unraveling is the clearest account yet of the complex, dangerous relationship between the leaders of Pakistan and jihadist groups—and how the rulers’ decisions have led their nation to the brink of disaster and put other nations at great risk. Can they save their country or will we one day find ourselves confronting the first nuclear-armed jihadist state?
Pakistan is an improbable country. The forefathers of the people who now dominate it politically and militarily were bystanders in the movement to create the Pakistani state. The people actually responsible for its creation were outsiders. Mohammed Ali Jinnah, leader of the Muslim League and founder of the nation, was a Bombay lawyer who wanted a separate homeland for the subcontinent's Muslims because he feared they would become a political underclass in a unified India dominated by Hindus. His vision was secular, not religious, similar to the
“Pakistan is where all the headaches of the twenty-first century come together. In The Unraveling, John R. Schmidt draws upon his first-hand experience as a diplomat in that nation to explain why. This is a book filled with useful information, objectively presented, and offered at precisely the right time.” —Madeleine K. Albright, U.S. Secretary of State, 1997-2001
“John Schmidt pulls no punches in this timely book. He makes a powerful case that Pakistan’s 'feudal political class' is that deserving but conflicted country’s worst enemy. He is just as frank in his critique of U.S. policy. His motive there too is entirely constructive: he administers a bracing and necessary dose of tough love to one of the most important and troubled inter-state relations on earth.”— Strobe Talbott, President of the Brookings Institution
“This is the go-to book for readers who want in-depth understanding of America’s No. 1 foreign policy conundrum: Pakistan. A lively and forceful prose stylist, John Schmidt weaves clear analysis and skilled hands-on diplomatic experience among the country’s elites into our best explanation of its downward spiral toward incoherence, fueled by Islamist radicalisms they have nurtured and refused to confront. Essential (and accessible) reading on a challenge Americans will face for years to come.” —Thomas W. Simons, Jr., former U.S. ambassador to Pakistan
“In the aftermath of the bin Laden raid, marking a new low point in U.S.-Pakistan relations, Senator John F. Kerry said: ‘This is a critical time to find a better way forward.’ But that will prove as elusive today as it was in the past if there is not a more informed, deeper and more nuanced understanding of the centrifugal forces at work in this critical nation. John Schmidt’s The Unraveling can serve as a lantern to shed light on these dynamics, and why the stakes are so incredibly high, for Pakistan and the world.”—Karl F. Inderfurth, Center for Strategic and International Studies (Washington, D.C.) and former U.S. assistant secretary of state for South Asian affairs