Winner of the Bollingen Prize
Here is the best and best-loved modern translation of The Odyssey, and the only one admired in its own right as a great poem in English. Robert Fitzgerald's supple translation, which has sold more than two millions copies since it first appeared in 1961, is ideally suited to the story of Odysseus's long journey home after the Trojan War.
Homer's classic tale of love, adventure, pleasure, and danger is delivered in all its glory as this translation, more than any other in English, deepens both our understanding and enjoyment of history's greatest epic poem. In an introduction written specifically for this edition—the standard version of The Odyssey for three generations of students, scholars, poets, and other readers—the great work is explored in much detail by noted classicist D.S. Carne-Ross.
A map, glossary, and guide to Homeric criticism and scholarship are also included, along with Fitzgerald's postscript.
An unabridged audiobook edition of Fitzgerald's translation, read by Dan Stevens, is published by Macmillan Audio in compact disc and digital audio formats. The audio program features a portion of the poem read in the ancient greek by Cambridge University scholar Patrick Boyde, so that listeners may experience the lyricism and music of the original language. If you're interested in using the audiobook in your classroom, please write to us at [email protected]
Notes on Fitzgerald's Odyssey from the Macmillan Teacher's Guide
Little is certain when it comes to the origins of The Odyssey or its partner epic, The Iliad. The Iliad is the prequel (as we would now call it) to The Odyssey in the legendary story of the Greek expedition to reclaim Helen from the city of Troy. Both epics circulated from the dawn of literacy under the name of Homer, but who this fabled poet was, and when and where he lived, remain riddles. Already some ancient critics doubted a single poet wrote both epics, and most modern scholars prefer to ascribe the creation and shaping of both stories to a tradition rather than to one or even two authors. Legends about the gods, and about a variety of heroes and their exploits, were in constant circulation and development, handed down from generation to generation. Over many centuries, bards developed highly formalized language to chant the stories in public performances. As the scenes of performances in The Odyssey suggest, these singers had a large repertoire of tales from which they chose when aiming to satisfy a particular audience's demand, or more likely the request of the local lord. The material was familiar, and the language traditional, indeed formulaic, so that a good singer could always improvise, in proper style and meter, a song that suited the performance situation in theme, episodes, details, scope, and tone. All the songs, as far as we can tell, gave audiences a vision of their ancestors, people more glorious and admirable than the singer's contemporaries, whether in victory or in defeat. In their greatness, in their heroic pursuit of glory and undying fame, the epic characters defined the heroic code the listeners, at least initially members of a warrior class, were to follow. What conferred undying fame was epic song itself: listeners of epic would have aspired to become the subject of song for subsequent generations.
There must have been many signal events, many great moments in the history of epic before The Iliad and The Odyssey achieved the forms in which we know them, but two appear, in retrospect, to have been supremely significant. Many towns and settlements were sacked as peoples jockeyed for land and power in what is now Greece and Turkey, but it seems that a city known as Troy, or Ilium, on the northwest coast of Asia Minor, near the strait known as the Dardanelles, and for that strategic reason a significant power, was the frequent target of marauding attacks and sieges. One of the most devastating destructions it suffered fell shortly before or after 1200 B.C.E., some 3,200 years before our time. Around this destruction there seem to have coalesced stories of a Greek army on a mammoth campaign to sack the fortified city which sat astride sea and land lanes to the richer east. What was the reason for the expedition? Not greed and power politics—so legend has it—but the drive to recover something yet more precious: Greek honor in the shape of Helen, the beautiful wife of Meneláos, King of Sparta. Helen, the story goes, had been abducted by Paris, the handsome Trojan prince. And so the tale was spun backward. The legendary campaign against Troy took ten years. The Iliad, long though it is, narrates a crucial patch of the tenth year only, when Akhilleus, the greatest hero of the Greeks, fell out with the Greek commander in chief, Agamémnon, Meneláos' brother. By the end of The Iliad, Akhilleus has lost his companion, Patróklos, but has killed the great Trojan hero, Hektor. Troy was doomed, though its fall occurred in the cycle of stories, now mere fragments, that follow The Iliad, but not before Akhilleus himself met his death. The storytelling cycle continued with stories of the homecomings of the various Greek heroes, and it is the homecoming of the craftiest of those heroes, Odysseus, deviser of the Trojan horse itself, that is told in The Odyssey. Odysseus' journey is the longest of all the heroes'—up to another ten years, given the wanderings and delays—and he faces almost fatal odds when he returns home, but his is the only truly successful homecoming.
The other signal moment in the development of the two Homeric poems seems to have fallen in the eighth century B.C.E., for reasons that are hard to pin down. Whether by destiny or by luck, there was a happy conjunction of, on the one hand, one or two singers who had so mastered the traditional material and style that they could spin out monumental versions of these two episodes of the Trojan cycle, extraordinary in size, subtlety, and complexity of design, and, on the other hand, the introduction of writing from the Near East. Whether our great singer or singers—we might as well let him (or them) bear the name "Homer"—were literate or not, within one or two generations these two poems were beginning their own odyssey as texts, written in an alphabet adapted from Phoenician letters first on scraps of hide, then on papyrus rolls, centuries later in vellum codices or books, and finally printed on paper, whether in scholarly editions of the Greek original or in translations in many languages.
To say that this journey of Homer's poem rivals Odysseus' own journey is to say a great deal, for not unjustly have Odysseus' long and perilous travels given the name to all wanderings of epic proportions. It takes him ten years to travel from Troy, on the northwest coast of Asia Minor, to his island kingdom of Ithaka, off the west coast of mainland Greece. The distance in miles is not the point. He travels far beyond the "real" world, visiting the fierce Laistrygonês and monstrous Kyklopês, Aiolos, King of the Winds, the dreamy land of Lotos Eaters, and passing Skylla and Kharybdis, rarely without losing some of his companions. He spends longer periods of time with the enchantress Kirkê and, after all his crew have perished, with the nymph Kalypso. But always he presses homeward. When, with the aid of Athena and the Phaiákians, he reaches Ithaka, the homecoming, and the poem, are but half accomplished. He must disguise himself and marshal a few allies before he can win back his very hearth and hall from the small army of suitors who have lain siege to his wife, Penélopê. She is a crafty and cunning force to be reckoned with, more than a match in wits for her suitors, and even at times for Odysseus himself. The second half of the poem is a story of disguise, misleading tales, and recognitions, of reunion not only of a husband and a wife, but of two father-son pairs. At the end, generations are reconciled, and civic strife averted.
For how long, no one can say. Cycles continue, legends go on and on, because Homeric poems end "in the middle of things," as they begin. What has continued without end is the reading of The Odyssey. At the beginning of the poem, Homer asks the Muse, guarantor of epic memory, to sing through him. The Muse still sings in the pages of this book, and she is eager to begin. Attend her, and wonder.
"A stroke of genius in Fitzgerald's rendering . . . [Fitzgerald] can teach us to read Greek with fresh eyes."—John Talbot, The New Criterion
"A masterpiece . . . An Odyssey worthy of the original."—William Arrowsmith, The Nation
"[Robert Fitzgerald's Odyssey and Iliad] open up once more the unique greatness of Homer's art [and] the brilliant texture of Homeric verse."—The Yale Review
"Here there is no anxious straining after mighty effects, but rather a constant readiness for what the occasion demands, a kind of Odyssean adequacy to the task in hand."—Seamus Heaney
Praise for the Unabridged Macmillan Audio Edition
"The Iliad and The Odyssey are informed by centuries of spoken transmission . . . Audio versions of The Iliad and The Odyssey, then, can fairly claim to offer the listener something more profound than merely an alternative method of absorbing a particular work. To listen to the poems is to partake of their most essential tradition. With these new recordings of Robert Fitzgerald's translations of both epics, published separately in 1961 and 1974, one of the critically anointed English translations now exists in spoken form. The lightness of Fitzgerald's touch, his almost conversational poetry, is well suited to the spoken word and to an audio version. His translation is in turn well served by the audio production. A flourish of epic music, Gladiator-style, introduces each recording—studied heroic fare to which this reviewer, at least, admits susceptibility. The reader is the talented actor Dan Stevens . . . his tone is not conventionally ‘bardic,' which is to say not dark, ponderous or declamatory, but rather young, bright and noble—as if King Harry had decided to deliver Homer instead of his St. Crispin's Day speech. The epics conjure a shimmering cast of some of the most memorable characters in all of literature. Stevens does a fine job of evoking each character distinctly, his approach is not histrionic . . . Steven's pleasant, even-keeled delivery . . . his level performance, his disinclination to permit any scene to hijack the steady narrative flow, ensures that his readings play like time-honored storytelling, cozy and accessible."—Caroline Alexander, The New York Times Book Review
"Not every book lends itself to the audiobook format, but there is an interesting subset of things that were actually meant to be read aloud. The Bible falls into this category, as does Beowulf, which Seamus Heaney both translated and read in a superb audiobook edition. But the paramount example of works composed not for the eye but for the ear are Homer's two great epics, The Iliad and The Odyssey . . . [Robert] Fitzgerald, who first translated The Odyssey in 1961, wrote as mellifluous an English as one could wish for: 'Sing in me, Muse, and through me tell the story/ of that man skilled in all ways of contending,/ the wanderer, harried for years on end,/ after he plundered the stronghold/ on the proud height of Troy.' Fitzgerald's smooth, musical verse is perfectly matched in this performance by the light, honeyed tones of Dan Stevens, the British actor who played Matthew Crawley in the first three seasons of Downton Abbey. Stevens has beautiful, clear articulation, and wonderful pacing, and he really seems to enjoy the poetry of the words. I confess that I could listen to him all day, which is good because the running time for this unabridged edition of The Odyssey is 10 1/2 hours, with another 14 hours for The Iliad, which he also reads."—Christina Thompson, The Boston Globe
Reviews from Goodreads
A GODDESS INTERVENES
Sing in me, Muse, and through me tell the story of that man skilled in all ways of contending, the wanderer, harried for years on end, after he plundered the...